Category: Chưa được phân loại

“Without coffee, politics loses its soul.” (Sans café, la politique sent car elle perd son essence – Napoléon Bonaparte).

“Black as the devil, hot as hell, pure as an angel, sweet as love.” (Charles Maurice de Talleyrand – 1st Prince of Benevento, then 1st Prince of Talleyrand, a laicized French bishop, politician, and diplomat).

Processing is also a critical part of making a good quality cup of coffee, besides planting, tending, harvesting. After harvesting, and before selling to the market, coffee beans are processed by two methods: dry processed and wet processed.

Natural/Dry-processed: After being harvested, ripe coffee berries are laid out on a patio fruit intact, and the coffee is allowed to dry slowly for around 1 week, depending on the weather, but generally, if if the moisture is about 12%, then we can finish drying. Once dry, the fruit is stripped away from the bean.

Washed/Wet processed: Coffee berries are sorted green and ripe separately. Ripe berries are de-pulped, which removes the skin and most of the fruit around the bean then let to ferment for 12-36 hours. Then the coffee is washed to clean off the slimy liquid which covers the beans before drying until the moisture is about 12%.

THE ART OF BLENDING

“A Barista is a specialist, a philosopher, an artist, a doctor, and magician of blending.”

– Chairman Dang Le Nguyen Vu – Founder of Trung Nguyen Legend

At Trung Nguyen, we see coffee as ENERGY COFFEE. It is made of three components: Ingredient, the Soul, and the Universe.

Materials: To make a perfect cup of coffee needs the best ingredients and the most advance technologies.

The Soul: As Dr. Masaru Emoto’s experiment had proved, even water has soul. When planting, tending, harvesting, processing and making, people of Trung Nguyen put our heart and soul into doing it, with a desire to serve our customers the best coffee we can make.

The Universe: “Coffee is the treasure of the Universe.” Not every land on Earth can grow coffee; only those who are close to the equator – where Yin and Yang is at balance and the climate is pleasant – can.

The historic journey of coffee is a long and unfinished story. But now is the time you will see the most delicate, the most interesting sides of coffee and you will see why CHAIRMAN DANG LE NGUYEN VU – Founder of Trung Nguyen Legend – said, “The whole universe in one cup of coffee.”

 

“Harvesting season – Festivals season”

In Europe, before the 16th century, harvesting was a term used to refer to autumn. It came from an English word, hærfest, which meant autumn (“Herbst” in German has the same origin and is still used to refer to autumn). This was an Indian-European word which meant picking, reaping, cutting etc. in comparison to “carpere” in Latin which meant to cut, to divide, to weed. Thus, in the beginning, hærfest was used to call happy occasions, and eventually to call the process of picking grown crops, then was used more generally to call picking seasons (usually in autumn).

In Vietnamese, harvesting is derived from Chinese words 收割 that mean “to take”, to collect.

In Europe and America, autumn is also the main harvesting season and is when festivals are organized to celebrate a fruitful season. In England, traditional harvesting festivals are organized on the closest Sunday to Harvest Moon – a full moon that occurs on autumnal equinox (22 or 23 of September). In America and Canada is on October or November on Thanksgiving. That’s also the reason most of festivals in the world are organized in the spring and autumn, two most beautiful seasons of a year, when harvesting season is finished and farmers have more free time.

With coffee, harvesting season largely depends on the conditions of the region such as landscape climate, soil, varieties and the tending process. In cold and high-altitude regions, coffee berries mature later than low-altitude and hot regions. Liberica coffee mature latest. Robusta coffee has various maturing time, depending on varieties. For example, in Columbia, harvesting season starts from May to July and from October to the beginning of next spring. In Ethiopia and Kenya, harvesting season starts from November to next February. Longest harvesting season is in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua (from November to next March), and in Brazil from June to the end of October.

Arabica coffee often matures sooner than Robusta, around September-October. With cooler climate regions, Arabica matures later. Robusta matures from October to December. When 90-95% of berries has matured, harvesting season will start.

In Vietnam, around September to October (lunar calender), coffee berries from all over Central Highlands will mature after a whole hard year of tending. The thrilling atsmophere spreads from coffee farms to every corner of every street. A red color covers each yard. Chatters and laughters filled the air with an overwhelming sense of satisfaction, of the love for coffee and the universe for blessing us with a fruitful season. People often keep a portion of their coffee as a treat to themselves after a long and hard farming season.

However, to have the best cups of coffee which are made from the best coffee beans that have high commercial values, farmers will harvest berries by hands, selectively pick them several times or strip them off, and only pick branches that mostly have ripe berries. When hand-picking, farmers have to decide which berries are ripe by their colors. Ripe berries are often red or yellow, then crimson, before turning black on drying, when immature they are green.

There are three methods of harvesting coffee: 2 hand-harvesting methods and 1 mechanical method. Mechanical harvesting is often used at big plantations. This method often harvests green berries as well. Mechanical harvesters use vibrating and rotating mallets to knock the coffee fruit off the tree into collection units. This method largely depends on the maturity of berries, thus, adjusting vibrating frequency is critical.

With hand-picking methods (selectively or strip the whole branch) onto a canvas on the ground. If berries are stripped onto the ground then collected, the quality will be compromised because of impurities, and will require further processing to eliminate impurities.

With harvesting the whole farm at once, though it’s best to wait until green berries are only 5%, there will be a lot of ripe berries or dead berries fall onto the ground before harvesting. The amount of dead berries can be made up by green berries that will ripe towards the end of the season (green berries at the end of the season still have as good quality as berries that mature in the beginning of the season).

 

Growing coffee isn’t simple; it requires a lot of precise techniques. In order to have healthy coffee plants that produce high quality beans and high productivity, we need to follow these steps:
Choose a flat land. Clean dead plants and debris from garden beds and the landscape. Build a drainage system according to following blueprints:
Select breeds: 4/55, 1/20, TR4, TR5, TR6, TR7, TR8, TR9. TR11, TR12, TR13 are all easy-growing breeds that are ramiferous. They can produce 4.5 to 7 tons of coffee per hectare.
Season: Plant in the beginning of rainy season (May, June)
Distance and density: If the land is in good condition where intensive farming is possible, plant less dense, vice versa. Flat land in good condition: 3 x 3m (1.118 tree per hectare); acceptable land which is sloping: 3 x 2.5m (1.330 tree per hectare).
Planting: coffee trees are not too selective on soil. They can grow on different kind of soils such as red soil, brown soil or grey soil etc. though red soil tends to have an extremely advantageous affect upon the vitality and prosperity of the tree. The basic requirement is the topsoil thicker than 70 centimeters with components from average to lightly heavy (clay or alluvial).
Dig holes one month before planting. Each hole has a dimension of 60 x 60 x 60 cm. Put aside the topsoil then mix with 10 – 20 kg of manure + 0.5 kg of phosphate + 0.5 kg of lime then fill the holes.
Put aside subsoil to build tree beds later on. While planting, scatter 100 grams of NPK 16 – 16 – 8 – 13 S.

TENDING COFFEE TREES

To tend coffee trees, we need to:

Plant windbreak trees.

During maturing and harvesting periods, coffee trees need to be wind blocked carefully. Cassia Splendida Vogels (or Sunshine Trees) are very good to use as windbreaks. Plant these trees between rows of coffee plants; one row of Sunshine trees every 2 to 3 rows of coffee plants.

Plant shade trees.

We can plant shade trees at crossroads between beds of coffee trees at the distance of 9 x 9m or 9 x 12m. Plant at the same time as coffee plants. These plants can be avocado, durian, or pepper trees. They can provide shades and also have commercial values.
Shade trees need to be trimmed properly, not too bushy so that coffee trees under them can have enough sunlight. Their canopy needs to be higher than the top of coffee plants 2 to 4 meters.

Weeding

Coffee trees have taproot systems with sub-roots sprout laterally to absorb nutrients, thus we need to weed regularly (4-5 times a year) both within and on coffee beds. We can also plow coffee beds while weeding. Before fertilizing, we have to weed as well.

Building coffee beds

Building beds helps irrigate and fertilize more easily and effectively. The ledge of the beds need to be higher than the inside at least 15 – 20 centimeters. Beds need to be plowed once a year in rainy season. Expanding beds according to canopy, only stop when the beds of two opposite rows meet each other.

Pruning

Constantly trim buds that grow from the trunk or at the axils, especially in rainy season before fertilizing. We can trim buds 5-6 times a year. After harvesting, use a scissors to cut small branches or dead branches and diseased branches. In each pruning area, only leave 3 branches. Trim branches up high to allow sunlight to get through. Restrain tree tops at 1.6 – 1.7 meters.
With coffee plants that need to be sawed in order to grow back: Saw in February (lunar calendar) at 20 – 25 centimeters above the ground. Saw at 45-degree angle. Grow 4-5 strongest buds. When the beds are 25 centimeters high, leave only 2 buds and saw the rest to shape the trunk and tend for the tree as if it was a newly grown one.

Preventing pests

During March – April (for spring-summer season) and October – November (autumn – winter season), badly diseased trees need to be cut down to kill of pests. Plant shade trees to limit the damage of pests.
Use Boremun 4% to spray all over the tree twice a year to kill eggs, baby pests and grown pests. Cut down high branches, branches that grow within the canopy, small branches, and unneeded branches for berries to grow. Trim dead branches, old branches, and diseased branches for a more ventilated garden to help the trees grow better, increase its resistance to pests, prevent other diseases that cause berries to fall. Often clean up diseased leaves and branches.

Watering

Watering for coffee plants need a lot of investment with high costs, thus it should only be done in dry lands where dry season last 4-6 months a year.
Use plastic pipe to pour water onto the root during dry season. Most coffee plants in the world aren’t watered during dry season.
Robusta, which has lower survival change in the drought, are watered more than Arabica.
Because in Central Highlands, the dry season lasts from November to April, thus watering is a critical factor to coffee production. The high quality Robusta coffee of this land of red soil has claim its top position in Vietnamese coffee market.
“We ought to make the best coffee we can make, even if that means we will have to dig through the Earth.” (Chairman Vu – Founder of Trung Nguyen Legend)