Author: adtcreative.vn

On the morning of 12th September, the “Tech Summit 2018” organised by the Nhip Cau Dau Tu Magazine, was held at the Gem Center Conference & Events Center (HCMC). Over 300 CEOs, managers and experts from domestic and foreign companies and guests are interested in information technology, security, information security, application of technology in business and life, especially new trends of technology in the 4.0 era.

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From May 3 to May 5, 1818, within the International Coffee Exhibition in Vietnam – Café show Vietnam 2018, Trung Nguyen Legend Group introduced the energy coffee products, the virtual space World Coffee Museum and Coffee City Project to community who love and passion for domestic and international coffee.

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Profession is the fourth coffee philosophy of Vietnam. There’s a saying that: “One exceeding, one succeeding”. It means if you exceed at a job, you will have fame and wealth your whole life. By being responsible for ourselves and be the best we can be, we are contributing to our society in our own way. It’s our talent, career, and our value in our community. To Trung Nguyen, The Soul of Profession isn’t shown in just the love for coffee, for our job, but goes even beyond that. As Chairman Vu – the founder of Trung Nguyen Legend – said, “Doing business isn’t just about profits. In fact, profits are just a result of devoting ourselves to our community. More than anyone else, a businessman, as a person, has to put substantial humanity above all else.”

Profession is the fourth coffee philosophy of Vietnam. There’s a saying that: “One exceeding, one succeeding”. It means if you exceed at a job, you will have fame and wealth your whole life. By being responsible for ourselves and be the best we can be, we are contributing to our society in our own way. It’s our talent, career, and our value in our community. To Trung Nguyen, The Soul of Profession isn’t shown in just the love for coffee, for our job, but goes even beyond that. As Chairman Vu – the founder of Trung Nguyen Legend – said, “Doing business isn’t just about profits. In fact, profits are just a result of devoting ourselves to our community. More than anyone else, a businessman, as a person, has to put substantial humanity above all else.”

Coffee belongs to top six products that have highest commercial values, in order: oil – gas – coffee – gold – sugar – corn. 80% of coffee of the world is from family farms in developing countries. But advertising and consumers are mostly from developed countries such as North America and Europe, where coffee farming is almost non-existed. This is one of the most ridiculous paradoxes that reflects 500 years of power of North America and colonialism.

Brazil is the biggest coffee exporter in the world, with stunning farms that are mostly mechanized. It’s also the biggest coffee producer in the world.

Vietnam: The King of Robusta Coffee. In 1900, Vietnam produced about 1% coffee of the world. But in 2014, we had surpassed Brazil to be the biggest Robusta coffee exporter.

Vietnam: The King of Robusta Coffee. In 1900, Vietnam produced about 1% coffee of the world. But in 2014, we had surpassed Brazil to be the biggest Robusta coffee exporter.

Coffee farming was introduced to Indonesian by the Dutch Empire. Production has been continuing ever since this country gained freedom. Today, coffee plantations take up to 1 million hectares with more than 90% is smallholder farms.

Ethiopia is the kingdom of Arabica – the world most popular coffee bean. It contributes a big part to this country’s economy, accountable for more than a half of its exports. Approximately, there are 15 million Ethiopians are working in coffee industry.

In India, 80% of coffee production is for export, mostly to Europe and Russia.

Coffee is an important part of the economy of Honduras. This country is the biggest coffee producer in Central America. Coffee industry continuously creates jobs and income for a big part of the population. It helped stabilize the economy of Honduras and overcame the 2009 crisis.

Mexico mainly produces high quality Arabica and is the largest source of U.S. coffee imports.

Coffee export is the biggest source of income of Uganda. It has an important role in the economy of this African country with most of the population work in coffee industry.

Guatemala is one of the countries that have stable coffee production for years. Today, Guatemala is still trying to export more and more coffee to the world.

The coffee industry currently has a commodity chain that involves producers, middlemen exporters, importers, roasters, and retailers before reaching the consumer. Middlemen exporters often referred to as coffee “coyotes,” in regard to their lucrative motive. They purchase coffee directly from smaller farmers at cheaper price than the market, then sell it to make profit. With big capitals, they can easily buy high quality coffee from all around the world that common roasters do not have. In the United States, there are around 1,200 roasters. Roasters have the highest profit margin in the commodity chain. In America, the annual growth rate of 20% per year in sales brings in 76.8 billion dollars

Coffeehouses have the fastest growth rate in restaurant industry with the annual growth rate of 7% per year. The growth rate of labor market in the beverage industry has always have the highest rate of 10% per year. One interesting fact is that the price of unroasted coffee beans decreases as the number of specialty coffeehouses increases. According to The Specialty Coffee Association of America, coffee drinking trend has changed. In 2008, there was 16% of people from the age of 18-39 drank coffee. This number has gone up to 39% in 2016.

The trend in coffee drinking is gradually re-established by youngsters with higher demands on the quality of coffee, on the environment in which they drink coffee at, on the community and the experience they might have while drinking, on the stories around coffee and coffee related souvenirs. It’s not too exaggerating to say that people and societies of coffee are developing to match a better and more creative period of globalization in amity and unity.

 

“Trees are necessary friends of men”

Trees are important parts of nature because they help prevent soil erosion and protect ecosystem in and under their foliage. They also hold a big part in producing oxygen and reducing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, as well as lowering the air temperature. It is an essential factor in landscape designing and the essence of agriculture. Wood, which is taken from trees, can be used in construction and is a basic energy source in developing countries.

Vietnamese people have been worshiping trees for thousands of years. Under big trees often have a shrine, an incense bowl, and a lime bowl to worship the God of Trees. Big trees have big Gods; small trees have small Gods.

Coffee brings wealth and prosperity!

Legends have it that, in 850, a shepherd named Kaldi one day found his goats jumping up and down in joy. After observation, he found out they had been eating coffee berries which made them so cheerful

The Books of Enoch (an ancient Jewish religious work, ascribed by tradition to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah. The older sections of the text are estimated to date from about 300 BC) had mentioned Eden and the trees in it which could be interpreted as a coffee garden in blooming season. Could it be that the crime of Adam and Eve eating the apple was legendized by Hôm Erectus eating coffee berries and became Homo Sapiens?

The origin of coffee and the types of coffee

Coffee is a tropical plant that grew in Kefa (or Kaffa) in Southwest Ethiopia, Africa. It was named after the place where it came from. Another legend says that it was named coffee because its name in Arabic was qahwah.

Coffee belongs to the Rubiaceae family. Coffee genus consists of different perennial plants. But not all of them contain caffein. Some are very different from common coffee plants that we see. There are only two types of coffee plants that have commercial values. The first one is coffea arabica (accountable for 61% of coffee products in the world). The other is coffea canephonra or coffea robusta (accountable for 39% of coffee products). There are also coffea liberia and coffea excelsa but they are in a small number

Coffea arabica plants can grow up to 6 meters, canephonra (or Robusta) plants can grow up to 10 meters. However, at coffee farms, they have to prune it down to around 2-4 meters for easier harvesting. The leaves are dark green and glossy in oval shapes. Their top sides are darker than bottom sides. Each leaf is 8-15 centimeters long, and 4-6 centimeters wide. Coffee trees have tap roots that go straight down into the soil from 1 to 2.5 meters with other roots sprout laterally to absorb nutrients.

The flowers are axillary, and clusters of fragrant white flowers bloom simultaneously. Each has five petals. Their color and fragrant remind us of jasmine flowers. They only bloom in 3-4 days and pollination only lasts for a few hours. The strong fragrance attracts bees from all around to collect nectar, producing delicious honey. Swarm of butterflies in various colors are also attracted by coffee flowers, creating a stunning scenery to win over even the most unromantic of us all. These flowers, these fragrance and colors are the signatures of Central Highlands – the land of red soil

The flowers often bloom 2-3 times until the end of March. Each time they last for about a week. Many people misunderstand that coffee has its signature scent when in fact it only has that small after being roasted. Thus, while processing, each family has their own way of roasting to create different smell

New coffee berries will grow after blooming season, all small and green. Thus, people of Central Highlands consider this to be their spring, a season of gathering, of family and friends, of hoping for a bumper year, of new plans for coffee festival, which will be held in March every other year. Festivals are important traditional community activities in Vietnam. They preserve and pass on cultural heritages between generations, create diversity. Through festivals, cultural and spiritual needs of the community are satisfied, customs and traditions are preserved.

A grown coffee tree has 30,000 to 40,000 flowers. Right when a tree starts to bloom, they can predict how the season will turn out to be. In big coffee exporting countries, this is a critical factor to predict the price and the market. However, extreme cold weather or droughts can still affect the results and change the prediction.

When the weather is good, bees and butterflies and other insects will help with pollination. Berries will develop in 7 to 9 months and have oval shapes that look like cherries. When immature they are green, and they ripen to yellow, then crimson, before turning black on drying. Because this process takes quite a long time, there can be flowers and berries on one tree at the same time. Each berry usually contains two seeds (beans) lying next to each other in the flesh. One of its surface is flat, the other is curved. Each seed is also covered by two thin layers: one layer is white, wrapping tightly around the seed; the other is yellow and wraps more lightly outside. The seed can either be round or long. When immature they are greyish yellow, or greyish green, or green. Sometimes there is only one seed in each berry.

A coffee bean, with its crack in the middle, was mentioned in Oromon myths as God’s ear. It was “the third ear” – a term which was first used by the psychoanalyst – Theodor Reik – to refer to the ability to listen and understand hidden things behind language and tones. This term was also used in The New Kingdom (also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, from 1570 BC to 1070 BC). According to their legends, Amon-Re was the God with a third ear who could hear Heaven, the Earth, and Hell, who came from the past, the present, and the future.

In Ethiopian myths, a coffee bean with its crack in the middle also symbolized a vagina – one of the first things that people worshiped 32,000 years ago. Ethnologists call it Yoni in referring to the gate that opens us to a newer and better world. Through a woman’s vagina, can geniuses that make the world a better place be born. It is a passage between the heavenly world and our mortal world. A coffee bean, one that resembles a vagina, had become a symbol of Yoni – the gate to heaven.

Coffee season is from October to the end of September (solar calendar). Harvesting
time in Central Highlands (where produces 80% total output of coffee of Vietnam) lasts
for 4 months, from the end of October to the end of January.

Ethiopia is the homeland of coffee. Brazil is the biggest coffee exporter. But Buon Ma Thuot – a part of Central Highlands of Vietnam – is the best Robusta coffee producer, making Vietnam the second biggest coffee exporter in the world with special spiritual values that make our coffee best of the best.

Nowadays, when we talk about coffee, we talk about fragrant cups of drink, either hot or cold. However, in the past, they did not make drinks from the beans but the leaves. This is still in practice up to now in Ethiopia. 

Botanists at the the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London, and researchers at Montpelier, France have confirmed that teas which are made from coffee leaves are very good for our health. They are less bitter and have less caffeine than tea leaves, yet stronger at giving us energy. They have antioxidants and anti-ferments. There are 7 types of coffee trees that have high levels of mangiferin (a chemical in mango) can help prevent fermentation, reduce cholesterol, support and protect neurons in the brain, decrease diabetes risk. And antioxidants in coffee leaves can prevent heart diseases and cancer.

We can use most parts of coffee trees. When the tree is too old (after 15 to 20 years), the wood taken from its trunk can make calligraphy pens, shelves, containers, frames, lamps, watches, makeup tables etc. Even used coffee grounds can be used to fertilize soil because they have high amounts of nitrogen, magnesium and potassium. Used coffee grounds are especially suitable for acidic soil plants such as roses, sweet potatoes, potatoes, carrots, onions, aloes, evergreens and rhododendrons etc

Besides removing dirt and dead cells from the skin, the vitamins and other substances in used coffee grounds can help nurture the skin, stimulate new cells to grow, improve pigment, give the skin a brighter and healthier look. They also can be used as deodorant.

To societies that depend largely on coffee, coffee trees have become an inseparable part in their cultural and spiritual life. According to Oromon legends – the first society that knew how to extract coffee 3,000 years ago – the first coffee tree grew on God’s teardrops which fell from the sky because he was weeping for mankind for being talented but powerless. Thus, even though their roots were deep in the ground, coffee trees were from the sky. The Sky and The Earth/The High and The Deep of coffee trees were long explained in legends. The High and The Deep weren’t just a contrast of the Sky and the Earth but was also a metaphor of a man’s life. Today, Oromon people still plant a coffee tree next to a grave to honor the death.

“Water is the source of life”

Water is of major importance to all living things. It is a critical resource but not unlimited. Water covers 71% of the Earth’s surface. The volume of all water would be about 332.5 million cubic miles (mi3), or 1,386 million cubic kilometers (km3). 3/4 of our body is water.

Water holds an important role to human. It is a symbol of life, purification and regeneration. Philosophers have long considered water as one of the four elements that compose matter. Perhaps the most notable philosopher that believed in this was Empedocles – the Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas.

According to Eastern philosophy, all physical matter is composed by five basic elements: Fire, Earth, Water, Metal, and Wood.

Water is the symbol of fertility and abundance. Vietnamese often see water as a God-given gift to grow crops and to bring fortune. They value the regeneration ability of water. To them, water is a medicine and a drink of immortality. They have a saying that “First water – then fertilizer – then diligence – then breed”, through which we can see the importance of water in agriculture, in rice and coffee farming. Statistically, one coffee tree needs 120 liter of water for the first year, 240 liters for the second year, and 320 liters for the third year.

Water is a big part of people’s lives from the day we were born to the day we return to dust. In Central Highlands, there is a Naming Ritual within Ede community. When a baby is born, the presence of two midwives are required. One to hold the back of the mother (pê giang). One to hold the baby (this one is called mạ bôi). Mạ bôi has an important role in cleansing and protecting the baby from evil spirits, but most importantly, in naming the baby. When the baby is born, she is to yell Kao dê! Kao dê! (Mine! Mine!) immediately to let Dang Bơ-riêng (The Evil God) know that the baby is taken, so he would leave the baby alone. One day after the baby is born, its family will organize Pơ-răp Dun Ritual (possessed ritual, naming ritual). Before this ritual starts, they will perform another ritual called Yang hah Buê (the name of The Good God who protects babies. For this ritual, they will prepare a copper bowl that filled with dews gathered from coffee leaves. These dews are the embodiment of ancestors’ spirits that will enter the body of the baby who hasn’t yet got a soul. After praying, the shaman holds a berry dipped in coffee dews near the baby’s mouth. She then will call out ancestors’ names, one after one. If the baby sticks its tongue out to lick a berry when she’s calling a name, that would be its.

Water resources are vital because they are the reason of wars between villages and countries. Approximately, 330 millions of people are affected by serious droughts in the last few years. World Bank’s latest report on physical impacts of climate change on water resources and the economy finds that water scarcity, exacerbated by climate change, could hinder economic growth, spur migration, and spark conflict.

 

 

According to Eastern philosophy, The Sky – The Earth – Men are the three most important things in the universe. Together, they form a close-knit circle. Every changes, every birth and death are happened within this circle.

Coffee is a treasure of the universe, a heritage of mankind and a solution for the future

(Chairman Vu – Founder of Trung Nguyen Legend Group)

In the old days, “The high mountain and thick forest” named Buon Ma Thuot was considered Ede’s sanctuary. People of this red soil land worshiped the dirt they walked on. The language they used was mainly Rhadé. “Buon” meant village, “Ma” meant father, and “Thuot” was the name of the chief’s son, who led his people fought against Khmer and Ai Lao (Laotian) armies when they invaded their land. Because the soil was so important to them, they named every place on their land after it, such as Cu M’Gar (a reverse mountain), river k’rong Ana, krong k’No, and a reverse river Serepok, which were, and still are, water supplies for coffee plants.

According to Eastern philosophy, The Sky – The Earth – Men are the three most important things in the universe. Together, they form a close-knit circle. Every changes, every birth, every death happens within this circle.

Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. Earth’s body of soil is the pedosphere, which has four important functions: it is a medium for plant growth; it is a means of water storage, supply and purification; it is a modifier of Earth’s atmosphere; it is a habitat for organisms; all of which, in turn, modify the soil. The pedosphere interfaces with the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere. The term pedolith, used commonly to refer to the soil, translates to ground stone. Soil consists of a solid phase of minerals and organic matter (the soil matrix), as well as a porous phase that holds gases (the soil atmosphere) and water (the soil solution). Accordingly, soils are often treated as a three-state system of solids, liquids, and gases.

Soil is a product of the influence of climate, relief (elevation, orientation, and slope of terrain), organisms, and its parent materials (original minerals) interacting over time. It continually undergoes development by way of numerous physical, chemical and biological processes, which include weathering with associated erosion. Given its complexity and strong internal connectedness, it is considered an ecosystem by soil ecologists.

As mankind developed and migrated into wasteland, we’ve changed the soil physically, chemically and biologically, for farming, especially crucial industrial crops such as coffee. The best soil for growing coffee is the flat-terrain red soil of highlands. They originated from lava which was molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from 700 to 1,200 °C (1,292 to 2,192 °F). After hundreds of millions of years, lava absorbed phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium, calcium, zinc and boron to transform into a fertile soil which provides the coffee plants in Central Highlands of Vietnam a special vitality.

ZEN COFFEE CULTURE

Awakening and Enlightening

Zen coffee culture is a representative of the East; it has all the characteristics of this region. It was born from the tranquility, knowing that each second of our life is ought to use to waken, to perceive and to absorb knowledge of mankind to achieve true happiness and wealth. But what was the origin of Zen coffee culture?

In the end of XIX, beginning of XX, the Society of Coffee was blooming all over Europe. Three basic beliefs in the Age of Enlightenment was spreading. The superiority of the mind, the inevitable avocation of the development of civilization, the happiness of men based on the results of science and technology was defeated by historical events, while history was made by men rather than gods. How can we believe minds lead men when the consequences of wars were too much to bear and were putting humankind at the threat of extinction? How can we believe in the development of science when our environment was destroyed and the Earth was at threat? How can we believe in happiness when every modul, every ideology and doctrine – socially, economically, and politically – was dismissed or failed to prove its effectiveness? In amid of all that, people of the 20th century, especially in the 80s, were under an additional stress: the stress time. The popularity of stress has become a disease of Age. And it was not for nothing. Two sides of stress have been named precisely in Vietnamese: on one side is the psychological stress and the other side is depression. Stress is caused by lack of time and depression is caused by excess of time. We feel stress because there is a pressure of competing with others and with ourselves hanging over our heads. Thus we feel as if we don’t have enough time to prove ourselves. In contrast, constant crisis brings not only the anxiety to us but also the enormous amount of free time – to those who lost their jobs or in a search of one. In the whirlwind of life, we also have to deal with the most dreadful desire of men. We call ourselves masters of our civilization. We invent new technologies, one better than last, with a desire to control time, but instead, we let time controls us. We assiduously compromise the material things of ours in exchange for the untouchable. And as the result, our instability has spread not only in our mind but also our faith. People of post- modernism/super modernism have a tendency to drown themselves in alcohol to forget who they are. Another tendency is to frantically search for something to believe in, whether naturally or supernaturally, with which the instability of faith emerges and is popularized.

Consuming and enjoying coffee is not out of those tendencies. In fact, it helps to transform and reshape them, and take them to another level. It comes from the essence of it all: Mankind need to awaken, to find themselves, because coffee had helped open up the mind of the faulty scientists of the West, forcing them to acknowledge the contribution of the East to mankind. They went back to the East where the Sun rose and looked to the West where the Sun set, wishing to pilgrimage to a lost paradise as mankind was searching for a cohesion of the East and the West.

ROMAN COFFEE CULTURE

The Journey of Humanity

Roman coffee culture is the feature coffee culture of the West. It became popular since the 16th century when Pope Clement VIII, upon tasting coffee, decided to baptized it. Roman coffee is known for its use of technology in processing and making coffee, in addition to the refined delicacy in decorating.

Roman coffee culture has in it an advance knowledge of a civilization that tried its best to break away from the domination of theocracy in the Renaissance and enlighten people’s mind in the Age of Enlightenment. After 10 centuries of living in a haze of the Middle Ages, the pre-capitalists and the Protestants finally embraced coffee – something that was imported from the East – as a humane drink of the new age. They denounced the way people over-consumed wine, saying it was a destruction of humanity.

In the beginning of capitalism, coffee was praised as a drink that helped untie the chain and brought creativity for men. Along with capitalist organizations, coffee freed Western civilizations of beer and wine. Thus, in a way, capitalism needed coffee and coffee needed capitalism, as two parallel lines.

The first coffeehouses established in this period were intentionally called Salons du Peuple (the People’s lounge) (France) and Penny Universities (England). In France, Salons du Peuple were a place where people came to discuss philosophy of life and political situations in the Age of Enlightenment, to be awaken by the power of coffee. Coffeehouses gradually became Parlement du Peuple (The People’s Parliament) – the first democracy public space in the history. In 1721, Montesquieu warned the monarchy about the thread of coffeehouses to its power. He stated, “Coffee has the ability to awaken people’s mind, and coffeehouses – where debates take place – has become established as a public institution, while we haven’t had any rules over it” (Letter 34 [36] – Lettes Persanes). As history has proven, a gathering at the Café de Foy, Place du Palais-Royal, prompted the start of the French Revolution.

Meanwhile, in England, in contrast to the stirring atmosphere of the pubs, Penny Universities were suitable places for contemplating and exchanging knowledge. Coffeehouses were also where many important books on philosophy and economics were penned. David Hume (who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism), Jeremy Bantham (the founder of modern utilitarianism), and Adam Smith (the father of modern economics, who came up with the term the Invisible Hand) all laid the foundation for their lifetime achievements at these coffeehouses. The Royal Society, the leading national organization for the promotion of scientific research in Britain, a Fellowship of thousands of the world’s most eminent scientists, with Isaac Newton as its Founder, was also founded at Tilliard’s coffeehouse in 1660.

The concept of coffee society was then established based on a simple idea that no one came to a coffeehouse just to drink coffee. Coffee has become a lifestyle, a philosophy of life of the coffee drinkers themselves.

To instruct and to delight (latin: Delectare et Prodesse) was a guide to the formation of coffee culture in the West, with the partition and interaction of three elements: French Class, Italian Style, and Viennese Spirit as the essence of it. While Delectare was mostly about characteristics of coffee, Prodesse covered a larger scale: the atmosphere of coffee; more specifically, the space and time, and the people involved in coffee drinking. Thus, the characters of a drink cannot be separated from the movement of a place and expectations of its customers. The historical characteristics of subjects, space, and time, and people were basic components that formed coffee culture in the coffee society era.

OTTOMAN COFFEE CULTURE

THE ORIGIN OF AWAKENING BEANS

Coffee plants were first discovered in Ethiopia. The country was once known as Abyssinia. It is an oldest independent country in Africa and is also considered one of the earliest sites of the emergence of anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens. Homer mentioned Ethiopia twice in Illiad and three times in Odyssey. It is on a passage to Europe, Asia, and Africa. With a diverse culture, religion, and language, Ethiopia is a unique and interesting country in Africa and the world.

Ethiopia, located at Northeastern of Africa, is the birthplace of Arabica coffee. From long ago, native Ethiopians already used coffee leaves and beans in their food and drinks. According to Ethiopian myths, coffee beans were God’s tears dripping on shamans’ corpses. To this today, the Oromo people still keep the tradition of planting a coffee plant on the grave of their shamans. Other than to use in rituals, coffee was a source of food for Ethiopian. They cooked it by grinding coffee into powder, mixing it with fat, milk or butter, then shaping it into dried balls to give to soldiers on their march. In famous Ethiopian legends, throughout the ancient history, Ethiopia was the only country who knew how to take advantage of coffee. Many scholars suspect that one of the valuable gifts that Queen Sheba of Ethiopia and Yemen gave to King Solomon (970-931 BC) at Jerusalem was coffee beans to make a drink that, even then, was considered would awaken their mind.

Ethiopia isn’t just a birthplace of coffee; it also is a place where coffee is considered a symbol of power, a drink of God. Drinking coffee is a spiritual ritual.

One of the earliest groups of coffee lovers was the Muslims. Ottoman coffee culture was the culture of this religion. They thought of coffee as a drink of God that brought wakefulness and creativity, one that strengthened their faith as they had to stay up late to pray. In the 15th century, special places where people could drink coffee were appeared at the Great Mosque of Mecca. It was said that when coffee was introduced to Europe, the Vatican denounced it as a drink of Satan, of the Muslims and of those who were opposed to the Catholic Church. And so it was forbidden. When Pope Clement VIII was elected, he blessed the bean, said, “Why, this Satan’s drink is so delicious it would be a pity to let the infidels have exclusive use of it. We shall fool Satan by baptizing it and making it a truly Christian beverage.”

Coffee became popular in 1575 when the first coffeehouse was opened in Istanbul. Coffee was provided like “milk for chess players and thinkers.” In the mid-17th century, coffee had spread to the palace of Ottoman Empire with over 40 officials responsible for making coffee for the king and his trusted courtiers.

At its peak, the Ottoman Empire included the areas of Turkey, Egypt, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Macedonia, Hungary, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and parts of the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. Despite many differences in language, culture, religion, Ottoman Empire lasted for 623 years from 1299 to 1922 AC.

Ever since Ottoman Empire Era, coffee has been one of the most distinctive elements of Turkish way of life. It has a deep influence on customs and traditions of Turkey and plays an important role on social and political occasions in centuries. Although many of its rituals are no longer in practice in daily life, coffee is still an indispensable part of Turkish culture.

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